Puppy socialisation! A hot topic, and one that can make most owners feel slightly on edge.

We know it can feel like there’s a lot that can go wrong, as well as other sensible questions like how do you socialise a puppy when they can’t even go outside yet?

But there’s no need to break into a cold sweat. In this article, we’ve narrowed down everything you need to know about how to socialise your puppy to make sure your little one grows into a well-mannered and confident dog. 

Ah yes – there’s also an easy-to-follow puppy socialisation checklist you can print and put on your wall if you find it helpful. You can use it too, not just keep it as wallpaper.

What is puppy socialisation?

Puppy socialisation is a process that teaches puppies how to think about the world, how to respond to things in the world, and how to behave when things happen. It’s about giving your dog the life skills it needs to behave well and to be able to socialise with others.

Essentially, a well-socialised puppy will be able to:

  • Be taken to new places and stay settled 
  • Ignore what’s going on around them – so leave the pigeons alone. 
  • Be around other dogs and not lose their minds from the excitement. 
  • Generally, be a ‘polite’ and confident dog 
Puppy Socialisation: What is it really? + Checklist
‘What?! I’m not the only puppy that exists in the world?’ – they’re quite likely to think this as they trot along the park.

Why is puppy socialisation important?

Socialisation is important for puppies, as it makes them less likely to have fewer behavioural issues when they get older. It will also make them less likely to show aggressive or stressed behaviours when in exciting situations. Plus, it can make walking a much more enjoyable experience for both dog and owner.

All puppys have a time-sensitive period

All animals have a time-sensitive period at the start of their lives where they build connections between what they see, what happens when they see it, and how they should respond. Therefore, socialisation is essential to their survival so that they know if things are hazardous or rewarding. Essentially, it stops them from getting into a jam.

Puppy’s grow up fast – so don’t take your time!

You’ll find out quickly that puppies grow up quicker than we ever realise (although they’ll always remain puppies in our eyes), so it’s important to gradually expose them to other animals, objects and new experiences as this is when it’s really going to count. 

What is the socialisations period for puppies?

Although socialisation takes place over the first year of life, puppys have a ‘critical socialisation period’ that happens roughly between the ages of 4-16 weeks. The socialisation window is the time when they’re most receptive to this kind of learning, and will be most likely to absorb the most information. 

How to socialise your puppy in 5 easy steps

First, make sure to start early and continue gradually and persistently. Remember to go at your puppy’s pace – trying to speed up the process only slows the progress down since we end up flooding them. Don’t push them too far too fast, better to just go with the flow instead!

Step 1: Getting your puppy used to sounds

Your puppy can experience a wide variety of sounds at home during the puppy socialisation period, even before you even start taking them outside. Don’t really know what you get up to at home, but we’re sure there are some sounds that are going to be quite new for them – the piano, vacuum cleaners, or blenders are some of the most common ones, but again, there might be many others that sound quite weird to them at the start. 

The best way to get them used to them, is to have the sounds play at a low volume or maybe from a different room so they’re not too overwhelming. We know that seeing them react to vacuum cleaner sounds can be entertaining, but we really wouldn’t want to frighten them, would we?

PRO TIP: Remember that treats will truly be your right hand (..or hands?) when it comes to puppy socialisation training. While the sound is coming from a different room, make sure to keep handing them treats to remind them that everything is all is in order. 

YET ANOTHER PRO TIP: There are many available apps like Sound Proof Puppy Training or tracks you can play to help your pup get tuned in to all kinds of different sounds (pun intended) that aren’t so easy to replicate yourself such as fireworks or thunderstorms.

For more information on how to get your puppy used to sounds, The Dogs Trust has a lot of juicy material 

PRO TIP: Remember that treats will truly be your right hand (..or hands?) when it comes to puppy socialisation training. While the sound is coming from a different room, make sure to keep handing them treats to remind them that everything is all is in order. 

YET ANOTHER PRO TIP: There are many available apps like Sound Proof Puppy Training or tracks you can play to help your pup get tuned in to all kinds of different sounds (pun intended) that aren’t so easy to replicate yourself such as fireworks or thunderstorms.

Puppy Socialisation: What is it really? + Checklist

Step 2: Getting your puppy used to surfaces

When walking outdoors, your puppy will probably experience walking on all kinds of different surfaces like pavement or muddy trails and things such as snow, ice and spat up gum, unfortunately.

To get them feeling confident about touching and walking on strange surfaces, ‘What’s under my feet?’ is a good puppy exercise (and game!) you can do at home before starting on any outdoor adventures. 

Before you start:

Make sure the surfaces you use for this exercise are safe – nothing slippery or skiddy like plastic bags. They’ll come later.

Do this exercise in the room that your puppy spends most of their time in to make them feel safe.

How to do it

1. Set up three different surfaces on the floor. Here are some ideas:

  • Your welcome mat
  • A towel
  • Scrunched up paper
  • A cushion
  • Cardboard or paper

2. Let your puppy sniff and explore them in any way they like for about 15 minutes. They might feel like walking or even like barking at them but that’s alright – it’s a good way for them to build confidence in front of them too.  Who knows – it might even be their way of warning whatever inanimate object in front of them that they are not to be messed with. 


If your puppy takes more time to explore than you expected, there’s nothing to worry about.  As long as you’re with them, they’ll feel good and at ease. Bet you didn’t think your presence could provide such peace, did you?!

Try to aim for three new surfaces per week. This will help them feel better about going into unknown situations and prepare them well for when it’s time to go outside. No need to go on the hunt for snow or pebbles for them to walk on at home – they’ll meet those in person soon enough.

Step 3: Get your puppy used to meeting new people

Having your friends meet your puppy is a great way for your puppy to get used to different looking people, while in the comfort of your own home. It’s also a good way to make your friends like you just a wee bit more. Just joking.

To ensure that things go smoothly when having your puppy meet your human friends, here’s a good checklist to go through:

Invite just 2 people over at a time so as not to flood (or overwhelm) your puppy with too much happening all at once.

Ask your guests to sit on the floor or the sofa when they come in

Your puppy will have to approach them in their own time, so make sure they know this to prevent them from crowding or picking the puppy up just yet. 

Your friends are strangers to your puppy still, so your puppy needs time to find out more about them. It makes sense, I’m not sure how much you’d like it if unknown people suddenly started petting you – while you’re in full nude too. 

Hand your friends a couple of treats to give to your puppy, and see if they choose to come over to them.

Here’s why we like to follow these stages:

By giving your puppy time to figure things out for themselves (like who on Earth are these people in my living room) in their own time will help them grow more confident.

Overloading your puppy with novelty will flood your puppy, and can potentially make them fear new people, which we don’t want.

When puppies get picked up, especially by strangers, it makes them feel like they’re not in control. Remember last time you lost your sense of control when driving in France on the other side of the road? Yep, not so nice.

Preventing people from having a party every time they walk through the door can help your puppy not get overly excited about visitors – not every person who comes to your house is going to love dogs (who would believe it?!) so we’re sure you’d want to avoid a disaster: A high pitched squawk, bags flying in the air, visitors never coming back.

Step 4: Get your puppy to experience the outside world

This puppy socialisation exercise is all about helping them to build positive associations with the outside world. Instead of thinking of the big, red double decker buses as monsters, they’ll eventually start seeing them as you do – metal boxes that although follow an inconsistent schedule, get you from A to B.

Puppies can take time to acquaint themselves with everything that lives outside, so there’s no need to rush things! The goal is to boost their confidence and make them feel like they’re able to walk safely among the all-weird outside things.

Before you start:

Do this puppy socialisation exercise at a time where there aren’t that many people out and about. Also, let’s not pick a busy area like Oxford Street – which is too busy for most of us at the best of times. 

As always, have a good handful of treats in your pocket.


Carry your puppy in your arms just outside your home onto the street. Let them take in what’s going on outside. 

Watch the world go by with them from there for about 10 minutes. You might run into schoolchildren, other neighbourhood dogs, seagulls, or your local milkman. Love how milkmen came back. 

Around every minute or so, give your puppy a treat to show them that everything is going well – especially if something really new has gone past like your neighbour saying hello across the street.  


If your puppy seems unsure about something, don’t move closer to it as a way to prove it’s safe because they will most likely find it overwhelming and become even more frightened about it.  Instead, move further away, and try again another time.

Not a great idea to let your puppy on the ground unless they’re fully vaccinated! It’s not safe for them just yet. Find out more about when it’s safe for puppies to go outside in our guide.

Doing this every day will teach them the outside world is a positive one, and they’ll be less worried when the day of proper walkies comes. 

Step 5: Take your dog out and about

Indeed, there are ways to take your puppy outside while still keeping them safe before they’re fully vaccinated – use a puppy carrier for outings.

Here are some places that would be great for your puppy to visit while still waiting to get their vaccinations:

  • Vet Surgery (sure, it’s not Disneyland but it will be great for them to get used to their vet) 
  • To the park, as long as they’re sat on a bench next to you at a safe distance from everyone else
  • Take them for coffee – don’t literally give them coffee, but they’ll look cute in a carrier on the seat next to you.

But while we always think about being safe as being all about your puppy’s vaccination status – we also want to be mindful of what’s emotionally safe – so make sure not to flood them by getting them into overwhelming situations they can’t cope with! Let’s stay away from school as the bell goes off for home time.

PRO TIP: New situations and treats go well together. Don’t forget to bring them along with you so your puppy learns that there’s loads of good to be had in the outdoors!

Puppy socialisation checklist

You’ll want to make a checklist of things you need to socialise your puppy with, so here’s one we’ve made!

Tick them off as you go, and remember you’ll probably need to repeat them quite a few times, so be prepared to practice patience. 

When working on puppy socialisation, variety is key. For example, meeting babies is something you’ll have to do more than once; they’ll need to meet, see and hear different babies and children many times throughout the puppy socialisation period in order to realise that kids aren’t so scary after all. This can also be done with the help of socialisation classes.  

We know they can be in all honesty. But let’s just not tell them that. 

Body Handling

Checking inside their ears
Check their eyes
Touch between their pads
Open their eyelids, and check their mouth and gums
Check between their fur
Examine your pup when they are on a table
Hold your puppy on your lap/Hold them on your lap
Wipe their paws with a cloth
Put your fingers in between their collar
Pretend to trim their nails
Wipe all over them with a towel
Practice putting on their coat

People Socialisation

Elderly People
Wheelchair Users
Men with beards
People in high viz
People wearing face or head coverings
People wearing sunglasses

Dog Socialisation

Calm and friendly dogs
Dogs who play well with one another
Dogs who will teach your puppy if they play too rough

Other animals socialisation


This can be done by noticing them from afar and acting in the correct way. This doesn’t need to be a case of face-to-face meeting.

Scary sounds

Car doors slamming
Heavy rain/ Thunderstorms
The doorbell/Door knocking
Crowds of people
Vacuum cleaner
Barking Dogs

Surfaces and Other objects

Wet grass/Mud
Crutches/Canes/ Walking sticks
Plastic bags
Shopping trolleys/Prams Brooms/mops

New Places

Outside the front of your house
Up the street
A main road
Inside a dog friendly shop or café

PRO TIP: Try to do several things on one outing as situations will overlap – it will make your life easier if you combine things, but just make sure they are not too many so your puppy gets overwhelmed.

Puppy socialisation FAQs

What is the best way to socialise a puppy?

Good question. 

The best way to socialise a puppy is by:

– Taking them out and about with you – at both pre-and post-vaccination times. There’s truly no need to stay indoors if you’re able to carry them or pop them into a carrier. It’s all for their benefit in the end!
– Take them everywhere you’re allowed to (kudos for pet-friendly businesses!) and let them take in the world. 
– Remember to have your treats ready to teach them that there is no such thing as a big scary world.
– Gradually, let your puppy show you how comfortable they are. Learn to read your puppy’s body language and see how they are feeling. We love Lili Chin’s work – she has some great information on dog body language with lovely and easy-to-follow illustrations.

What is the most important socialisation period for puppies?

The most important socialisation period is before they are 16 weeks old. It’s not like you’ll be in trouble after that window closes, but this window truly is the time where puppies are the most eager to soak up information. Before they hit the 16-week mark, you’ll need to do lots of socialisation outings to help them grow into a confident dog. 

PRO TIP: Socialisation periods are also called sensitive periods. Surprise! This is also a time for you to look out for their emotional needs; so, give them positive experiences, protect them from worrying about things in their environment, remain consistent with your training, and teach them how to be a calm and well-adjusted dog. Yes, it’s a long list. But you’ll manage perfectly.

When is it too late to socialise my puppy?

Never! It’s always a good time to socialise your puppy.

Like we said before, if your puppy wasn’t able to be socialised before the 16-week deadline it’s not ideal. But there is still time – up until they’re grown-ups, even – to keep working on it. The only difference is that you may need a little more time – keep in mind their emotional needs just as you did when they were puppies. 

Really though, the best thing you can do is make a commitment to your puppy and their socialisation. Planning ahead and having a schedule with all the necessary activities is a great way to help them learn about the world in an enjoyable way. 

Seeing as they’ll enjoy much more of life after they become better at socialising, we’re here to support you along the way! 

What happens if you don’t socialise your dog?

If puppies are not socialised when they’re young, there is a big risk you’ll be playing an endless game of trying to get them to change their mind on how they perceive things. Until now, their view of the world may be a rather cloudy one due to a lack of early exposure and experience to the world, which can sadly result in a shy, fearful and sometimes aggressive adult dog.

We don’t mean to scare you, but the hard truth is the number one cause of death at under three years of age is due to behavioural issues, not illness or infectious diseases. The AVSAB has more information about this, if you’re interested in knowing more. 

So yes. Because of this, we couldn’t be more eager to help you socialise your puppy as best you can to give them all the chances at a good, fulfilling life, and everyone around them. It’s perfectly possible too!

My puppy can’t go out yet, what socialisation training can I do at home?

Here’s a list of puppy socialisation training activities you get into while they’re able to fully go outside:

– Creating a puppy adventure box : These ones by Avidog are brilliant.
– Walking on different surfaces: Think of gathering tiles, both soft and rough rugs, the grass and brick floors from your garden…anything that won’t hurt their paws should do just fine.
– Meeting new people: We know how exciting it is when a new puppy enters your friend circle. But let’s start off without a bang so your puppy doesn’t get overwhelmed – having two visitors at a time come over will be a good way for your puppy to know that there are more people than you that exist around them.
– Watch the world go by: Admire the world from a safe distance – whether it’s from the front of your house or going for a drive, watching the world go by is a great way to ease them into the wonders of the world. 
– Introducing new scents: Everything from another dog’s blanket to the strange gnomes in your neighbour’s front garden. 
– Play dress up: In life, your puppy will probably run into many people that look and dress different to you, so better prepare them for the unexpected.
– Visiting the vet: The vet isn’t a scary place. It’s quite the opposite! They make everything better. Popping by to the vet’s for a quick hello is a great way to build positive associations with them so your puppy is always happy to go there.

The Puppy Plan and Sound Proof Puppy Training also have good ideas on things you can do to socialise your puppy before their vaccinations – feel free to take a look!

How do you socialise a nervous dog?

It’s alright if your puppy is a little nervous or shy. With so much going on, we can’t really blame them. 

But we know it can be difficult to know exactly how to help the little one when there’s so much worry in their minds. However, as you’ve probably experienced so far, the world is a great place to be – let’s help them see this side rather than the scary one. 

Making a plan will help you through it. But first, take a deep breath and make yourself a warm drink (or a glass of wine, why not?) and remember to not stress – there are only good days ahead of you!

Here’s how to make a plan:

Step 1: Write down all the times you felt your puppy was uncomfortable or distressed. Make sure to jot down what it is that got them feeling iffy, its size, at what distance you were from it, how loud it was…everything you can think of that can help you find more about what they’re worried about is grand.

Step 2: Think about how you can bring your puppy into contact with them at a distance, duration or volume level that you think they’ll be ok with. 

Step 3: With so much good in the world to see, decide what else is important for your dog to experience, and think about how you’re going to help them deal in a positive way.

Step 4: We wish there was a way to stress this more – but stick to the plan! We’re sure your friends and other dog owners nearby are well-meaning when they try and tell you what you should and shouldn’t be doing. But this can potentially ruin all the good work you’ve done so far. 

So, here’s what you can do to stay on track: 

– Take it slow: Like that story about the tortoise and the hare…slowly wins the race.
– Keep it positive: Positivity rubs off! Stay calm and relaxed, and your puppy will too. 
– Keep sessions short:  We all know by now that puppies have short attention spans – try just short and sweet, with lots of breaks. 
– Don’t force your dog to interact with people or other dogs: If it doesn’t work on you, probably won’t work on them.
– The stinkier the treat, the better: Treats can really do wonderful things – like changing your dog’s mind from thinking something is scary, to fun. Like the mailman.
Liver paste, Crab paste, dried sprats all count as high value rewards. It’s no exaggeration when we say that puppies will go bonkers for them.
– Always go back to the plan: No matter what. You know your puppy best, and will therefore know what’s best for them. Have faith and trust your instincts!

We hope you enjoyed reading our article and that it gave you some good tips on how to socialise your puppy. 

If you’re looking for more puppy training advice, check out our article on lead training your puppy, next. And of course, don’t forget to download the Zigzag app and get all the advice you need at a click of a button.